防止人类免疫缺陷病毒在血液和血液制品中传播的实验室战略防御措施。

PubMed ID
发表日期 2003年Dec月

原始出处 尼日利亚研究生医学杂志
The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
作者 Ahmed  S G 

文献标题 防止人类免疫缺陷病毒在血液和血液制品中传播的实验室战略防御措施。
Laboratory strategic defense initiatives against transmission of human immune deficiency virus in blood and blood products.

文献摘要

以酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)和免疫印迹试验为基础的血清学方法是鉴定受感染献血者的标准技术。然而,这些检测无法检测到在捐献时处于窗口期的感染血清阴性献血者。这种供体可以通过抗原检测ELISA和聚合酶链反应等更精细的方法进行鉴定,即使在窗口期也能检测到感染供体血液中的病毒抗原和核酸。此外,捐赠者甄选过程将艾滋病毒感染高危者排除在捐赠者小组之外,这大大降低了窗口期捐赠的风险。此外,为了确保更大的安全性,输血中心现在采取了额外的措施,如使用热、洗涤剂和光化学剂来处理血液和血液制品。尽管采取了所有这些措施,无风险输血实际上并不可行。然而,随着重组血液制品的引入,无风险输血成为可能,其使用受到成本的严重限制。尽管如此,无风险输血仍然是可以实现的,成本相对较低,通过自体输血计划为符合条件的患者输血。抗体检测几乎是尼日利亚血库目前唯一可用的方法。为了使我们的血液和产品更安全,有必要重新启动和扩大我们国家输血服务的范围。


Serological methods based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot tests for detecting the presence of antibodies against the human immune deficiency virus are the standard techniques for identifying infected blood donors. However, these tests could not detect infected seronegative donors who were in the window period at the time of donation. Such donors can be identified by more elaborate methods including antigen detecting ELISA and polymerase chain reaction, which can detect viral antigens and nucleic acids in infected donor blood even in window period. In addition, the process of donor selection whereby individuals who were at high risk for HIV infections were excluded from the donor panel had substantially reduced the risk of window period donation. Furthermore, in order to ensure greater safety, transfusion centers nowadays undertake additional measures in the form of virucidal techniques such as the use of heat, detergents and photochemical agents to treat blood and blood products. Despite all of these measures, a risk-free transfusion was not practically achievable. However, risk-free transfusion is now possible with the introduction of recombinant blood products, the use of which is severely limited by their cost. Nonetheless, a risk-free transfusion is still achievable at a relatively little cost by transfusing suitably eligible patients with their own blood through the autologous blood transfusion program. Antibody testing is virtually the only method currently available in Nigerian blood banks. There is the need to reactivate and expand the scope of our National Blood Transfusion Service in order to make our blood and products safer.