[高雄激素血症,肾上腺功能障碍和多毛症]。

PubMed ID
发表日期 2020年Aug月

原始出处 皮肤病学,性病学,和韦尔旺特格比
Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
作者 Makrantonaki  E  Zouboulis  C C 

文献标题 [高雄激素血症,肾上腺功能障碍和多毛症]。
[Hyperandrogenism, adrenal dysfunction, and hirsutism].

文献摘要

高雄激素血症或高雄激素血症是一种以周围或全身雄激素水平过高为特征的疾病。高雄激素血症的临床表现包括多毛症、皮脂溢、痤疮、雄激素性脱发和男性化。多毛症是指女性末梢毛发以男性样的模式过度生长,是高雄激素血症最常用的临床诊断标准,通过使用头发生长的标准化评分系统来确定。痤疮和脱发是更常见的男性皮肤病变,在一些女性中可能观察到没有多毛症。阴蒂肥大,肌肉重量增加,月经周期不规则,代谢综合征也可能伴随这种情况。多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)、库欣病和迟发性肾上腺生殖综合征是高雄激素血症的最常见原因。男性化是高雄激素血症的一个相对少见的特征,它的出现通常意味着一个产生雄激素的肿瘤。治疗症状包括使用抗雄激素,如醋酸环丙孕酮、螺内酯和氟他胺。全面的病史,集中的临床检查和跨学科的方法与妇科医生和内分泌科医生一起,对疑似高雄激素血症患者的诊断、评估和治疗非常有帮助。


Hyperandrogenism or hyperandrogenemia are medical conditions characterized by excessive levels of androgens in the periphery or systemically. Clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism include hirsutism, seborrhea, acne, androgenetic alopecia, and virilization. Hirsutism, defined as excessive growth of terminal hair in women in a male-like pattern, is the most commonly used clinical diagnostic criterion of hyperandrogenism and is determined by using a standardized scoring system of hair growth. Acne and alopecia are further common androgenic skin changes and might be observed without hirsutism in some women. Clitoris hypertrophy, increase of muscle mass, irregular menstrual cycle, and metabolic syndrome can also accompany this condition. Among others polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Cushing disease, and late-onset adrenogenital syndrome belong to the most frequent causes of hyperandrogenemia. Virilization is a relatively uncommon feature of hyperandrogenemia and its presence often suggests an androgen-producing tumor. Management of symptoms include the use of antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, and flutamide. A thorough history, a focused clinical examination and an interdisciplinary approach together with gynecologists and endocrinologists are extremely helpful in the diagnostic evaluation and therapy of patients with suspected hyperandrogenism.


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