释放因冠状病毒病(COVID-19)大流行引起的对个人防护装备(PPE)和简易面罩的需求激增——对功效、再利用和可持续废物管理的影响。

PubMed ID
发表日期 2021年Jan月

原始出处 全环境科学
The Science of the total environment
作者 Rowan  Neil J  Laffey  John G 

文献标题 释放因冠状病毒病(COVID-19)大流行引起的对个人防护装备(PPE)和简易面罩的需求激增——对功效、再利用和可持续废物管理的影响。
Unlocking the surge in demand for personal and protective equipment (PPE) and improvised face coverings arising from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic - Implications for efficacy, re-use and sustainable waste management.

文献摘要

目前,由于SARS-CoV-2引起的持续流行的COVID-19病毒感染反复波的出现,使得医院的资源常常超出能力范围,因此还没有有效的疫苗来应对这一流行病。疾病对策依赖于预防SARS-CoV2的人与人传播,以保护一线医护人员。COVID-19在维持一次性塑料个人防护装备(PPE)的供应链方面带来了巨大的挑战。19年后,医疗实践的变化将推动PPE的高需求。预防COVID-19传播的重要对策包括使用医用个人防护用品(如过滤式面罩式呼吸器(ffr))缓解医疗环境中潜在的高风险气溶胶传播,以及公众适当使用传播风险较低的面罩。在COVID-19大流行期间,PPE再利用是一个潜在的短期解决方案,在这种情况下,有越来越多的证据表明有效地部署了再处理方法,例如单独使用或与臭氧、254℃紫外线结合使用的汽化过氧化氢(30%至35%VH2O2) 纳米(2000) mJ/cm2)和湿热(60 °C在高湿度下持续60分钟 最小值)。个人防护装备再利用的障碍包括潜在的信任和HCW的接受。面部覆盖物的功效受覆盖鼻子和嘴巴的适当佩戴、使用的材料类型、层数、佩戴时间以及可能优于耳环的领带的使用的影响。将鼻夹插入布罩中可能有助于保持合身。使用60 °C代表60 min(如,使用家用洗衣机和烘干机)一直提倡对面部遮盖物去污。由于湿度、液体扩散和病毒存留,病毒渗入简易面罩的风险可能随着佩戴时间的延长而增加。可回收个人防护用品的可用性和创新的生物医学废物管理将影响个人防护用品未来的持续使用。


Currently, there is no effective vaccine for tackling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 with the occurrence of repeat waves of infection frequently stretching hospital resources beyond capacity. Disease countermeasures rely upon preventing person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV2 so as to protect front-line healthcare workers (HCWs). COVID-19 brings enormous challenges in terms of sustaining the supply chain for single-use-plastic personal and protective equipment (PPE). Post-COVID-19, the changes in medical practice will drive high demand for PPE. Important countermeasures for preventing COVID-19 transmission include mitigating potential high risk aerosol transmission in healthcare setting using medical PPE (such as filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs)) and the appropriate use of face coverings by the general public that carries a lower transmission risk. PPE reuse is a potential short term solution during COVID-19 pandemic where there is increased evidence for effective deployment of reprocessing methods such as vaporized hydrogen peroxide (30 to 35% VH2O2) used alone or combined with ozone, ultraviolet light at 254 nm (2000 mJ/cm2) and moist heat (60 °C at high humidity for 60 min). Barriers to PPE reuse include potentially trust and acceptance by HCWs. Efficacy of face coverings are influenced by the appropriate wearing to cover the nose and mouth, type of material used, number of layers, duration of wearing, and potentially superior use of ties over ear loops. Insertion of a nose clip into cloth coverings may help with maintaining fit. Use of 60 °C for 60 min (such as, use of domestic washing machine and spin dryer) has been advocated for face covering decontamination. Risk of virus infiltration in improvised face coverings is potentially increased by duration of wearing due to humidity, liquid diffusion and virus retention. Future sustained use of PPE will be influenced by the availability of recyclable PPE and by innovative biomedical waste management.


获取全文 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142259